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D@dalos > Faqja hyrėse > Web 2.0 > Shoqėria 2.0 > Rrjetet sociale

 



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Temat e librit metodik online rreth  Web 2.0:

Hyrje

Ēfarė ėshtė Web 2.0?

Tė mėsuarit 2.0

Politika 2.0

Ekonomia 2.0

Shoqėria 2.0

 Rreziqet e Web 2.0

 Rrjetet sociale

 Urtėsia e masės

 Digital Natives





CBS "Sixty Minutes":
Mark Zuckerberg & Facebook (Dec. 2010):







"I'm trying to make the world a more open place by helping people connect and share."

[Info on Mark Zuckerberg's Facebook-Account]


Rrjetet sociale

Nėse do tė kishte nevojė edhe pėr njė konfirmim tjetėr lidhur me rėndėsinė e jashtėzakonshme qė kanė rrjetet sociale, atėherė do tė ishte ai, qė Time Magazine solli nė dhjetor tė vitit 2010: 26-vjeēari themeluesi i Facebook-ut u kurorėzua me titullin Person i Vitit 2010.

"For connecting more than half a billion people and mapping the social relations among them (something that has never been done before); for creating a new system of exchanging information that has become both indispensable and sometimes a little scary; and finally, for changing how we all live our lives in ways that are innovative and even optimistic, Mark Elliot Zuckerberg is TIME's 2010 Person of the Year."

[Richard Stengel: Only Connect, Time Magazine online]

Nė vitin 2010 Facebook u rrit nė mė shumė se 550 milionė anėtarė. Ēdo ditė (!) shtohen 700.000 anėtarė tė rinj. Nė mė pak se shtatė vjet facebook arriti, qė njė nė ēdo dymbėdhjetė njerėz nė botė tė ishte pjesė e rrjetit. Sipas Lev Grossman nė Time Magazine ky ėshtė,

"... a permanent fact of our global social reality. We have entered the Facebook age."

[Lev Grossman: Mark Zuckerberg, Time Magazine online]

Ashtu si shkruan Lev Grossman nė portretizimin interesant tė tė vlerėsuarit me ēmim dhe tė rrjetit tė tij, pėrdoruesit e facebook flasin 75 gjuhė dhe, tė marrė sė bashku, kalojnė mė shumė se 700 miliardė minuta nė facebook. Nė SHBA vetėm facebook ėshtė arsyeja e thirrjes sė pothuaj njė tė katėrtės sė tė gjitha faqeve nė internet. Nėse Facebook do tė kishte qenė njė shtet, atėherė ai do tė zinte vendin e tretė pėr nga popullsia, pas Kinės dhe Indisė.

Kėto janė shifra mbresėlėnėse. Grossman pėrpiqet nė artikullin e tij tė shpjegojė kėtė zhvillim. Pika vendimtare duket se ėshtė fakti, qė Facebook nė dallim nga  utopitė e tjera tė mėparshme tė rrjetit (pėrkatėsisht Cyberspace) dhe ndryshe nga konkurrentėt e tij Friendster dhe MySpace ėshtė me kėmbė nė tokė.

Ndėrsa rrjetet e mėparshme shėrbenin jo pak (madje duhej tė shėrbenin pėr kėtė) pėr tė provuar identitete tė tjera, nė rastin e Facebook bėhet fjalė pėr personin tėnd real pėr tė mbetur mė mirė nė kontakt me mjedisin tėnd real social. Kjo bėhet e qartė edhe ndėrsa shohim intervistėn e Time me Mark Zuckerberg:


 

 

 

Time Person of the Year 2010:
Mark Zuckerberg

 

[Foto: Raphaėl Labbé, Creative Commons]

 

 



Arsyet pėr suksesin e facebook
 


Ky fakt i thjeshtė, sipas tė cilit "Zuckerberg just wanted people to be themselves", ka bėrė, qė Facebook tė jetė njė rrjet krejt ndryshe nga tė tjerėt, kėshtu vijon Grossman. Dhe pikėrisht ai ėshtė shkaku, qė numri i pėrdoruesve nė fazėn vendimtare take-off mes dhjetorit 2006 dhe dhjetorit 2009 u shumėfishua nga 12 milionė nė 350 milionė, duke zbritur nga froni atė, qė zotėronte tregun deri nė atė moment, MySpace.

"It grew because it gave people something they wanted. All that stuff that the Internet enabled you to leave behind, all the trappings of ordinary bourgeois existence - your job, your family, your background? On Facebook, you take it with you. It's who you are. Zuckerberg has retrofitted the Internet's idealistic 1960s-era infrastructure with a more pragmatic millennial sensibility. Anonymity may allow people to reveal their true selves, but maybe our true selves aren't our best selves. Facebook makes cyberspace more like the real world: dull but civilized. The masked-ball period of the Internet is ending. Where people led double lives, real and virtual, now they lead single ones again. The fact that people yearned not to be liberated from their daily lives but to be more deeply embedded in them is an extraordinary insight (...). Whereas earlier entrepreneurs looked at the Internet and saw a network of computers, Zuckerberg saw a network of people."

[Lev Grossman: Mark Zuckerberg, Time Magazine online, theksim i autorit]




E ardhmja e Web: Facebook-ėzim?








(rreth "wisdom of crowds" shih faqen Urtėsia e masės)


Facebook mundi ta revolucionalizonte internetin. Natyrisht, gjithmonė ėshtė e vėshtirė tė bėsh parashikime, veēanėrisht kur ato – sikurse thoshte Karl Valentin – kanė tė bėjnė me tė ardhmen. Dhe tepėr veēanėrisht, shtojmė ne, kur kanė tė bėjnė me tė ardhmen e internetit. Le tė supozojmė, se Facebook nuk dėshton nė problemin e mbrojtjes sė tė dhėnave resp. tė sferės private – apo pėr diēka tjetėr, qė tani nuk shfaqet nė rrezen e radarėve – si do tė mund tė ndryshojė Web-i?

"Right now the Internet is like an empty wasteland: you wander from page to page, and no one is there but you. Except where you have the opposite problem: places like Amazon.com product pages and YouTube videos, where everyone's there at once, reviewing and commenting at the top of their lungs, and it's a howling mob of strangers. Zuckerberg's vision is that after the Facebookization of the Web, you'll get something in between: wherever you go online, you'll see your friends. On Amazon, you might see your friends' reviews. On YouTube, you might see what your friends watched or see their comments first. Those reviews and comments will be meaningful because you know who wrote them and what your relationship to those authors is. They have a social context. Not that long ago, a post-Google Web was unimaginable, but if there is one, this is what it will look like: a Web reorganized around people. 'It's a shift from the wisdom of crowds to the wisdom of friends,' says Sandberg. 'It doesn't matter if 100,000 people like x. If the three people closest to you like y, you want to see y.'"

[Lev Grossman: Mark Zuckerberg, Time Magazine online, theksim i autorit]





"... prior to the current era, the alternative to institutional action was usually no action. Social tools provide a third alternative: action by loosely structured groups, operating without managerial direction and outside the profit motive." (fq. 47)




Determinizėm teknologjik?

"
Mediat dixhitale nuk pėrcaktojnė pėrdorimin e tyre; mediat dixhitale lindin vetėm pėrmes pėrdorimit tė tyre."

[Stefan Münkler (2009), Emergjenca e opinioneve publike dixhitale, Frankfurt/Main, fq. 27]



Pėrmes Web 2.0 dhe veēanėrisht pėrmes larmisė sė social networking sites – krahas Facebook ka natyrisht edhe shumė rrjete tė tjera sociale si LinkedIn, Xing, MySpace etj. - tanimė ėshtė njė lojė fėmijėsh tė formosh grupe dhe t'i ruash ato. Kjo pėrbėn pikėnisjen e inventarit tė shkėlqyer tė Clay Shirkys "Here Comes Everybody. The Power of Organizing Without Organizations" (Penguin 2008). Libri ėshtė njė pėrpjekje pėr tė pėrpunuar pasojat e kėtij fenomeni nė shoqėrinė tonė:

"... almost everyone belongs to multiple groups based on family, friends, work, religious affiliation, on and on. The centrality of group effort to human life means that anything that changes the way group function will have profound ramifications for everything from commerce and government to media and religion. One obvious lesson is that new technology enables new forms of group-forming. (...) When we change the way we communicate, we change society." (fq. 16, 17)

Web 2.0 bėn tė mundur forma tė reja tė formimit tė grupeve – fakt ky, qė sipas Shirky, nuk duhet mbivlerėsuar pėr rėndėsinė qė ka. Ndėrsa mė parė ishte e nevojshme tė drejtoje grupe, pėr shembull nė sektorin e ekonomisė, pėrmes menaxhimit, kėto kufizime tani nuk ekzistojnė mė, dhe bashkė me ato edhe kostot e nevojshme tė transaksioneve pėrkatėse. Nė kėtė mėnyrė ėshtė e mundur, qė tė lindin gjithnjė e mė shumė grupe, e para sė gjithash grupe tė llojeve tė reja. Duke nisur me Flickr tek Wikipedia e deri tek Facebook ne jemi dėshmitarė tė njė eksperimentimi me grupe tė llojeve tė reja.

"... we are living in the middle of a remarkable increase in our ability to share, to cooperate with one another, and to take collective action, all outside the framework of traditional institutions and organizations. (...) By making it easier for groups to self-assemble and for individuals to contribute to group effort without requiring formal management (...), these tools have radically altered the old limits in the size, sophistication, and scope of unsupervised effort (...). And as we could expect, when desire is high and costs have collapsed, the number of such groups is skyrocketing, and the kinds of effects they are having on the world are spreading." (fq. 20-21, eigene Hervorhebung)

Pasojat e kėtyre mundėsive tė reja (ndarje, bashkėpunim dhe bashkėkrijim i vetėorganizuar) nė sektorė tė ndryshėm Shirky i demonstron nė mėnyrė instruktive. Qė nga ndryshimet rrėnjėsore nė industrinė e mediave, tek prodhimi nė bashkėautorėsi (Wikipedia) e deri tek kisha katolike. Veēanėrisht analiza e formave tė reja tė bashkėpunimit ("a hybrid of tool and community", fq. 136), tė cilat shkojnė shumė pėrtej determinizmit teknologjik aq shumė tė pėrhapur, e shndėrron kėtė libėr nė literaturė tė detyrueshme pėr tė gjithė ata, qė duan tė kuptojnė shoqėritė-rrjet nė lindje.

"... social tools don't create collective action - they merely remove the obstacles to it. Those obstacles have been so significant and pervasive, however, that as they are being removed, the world is becoming a different place. This is why many of the significant changes are based not on the fanciest, newest bits of technology but on simple, easy-to-use tools like e-mail, mobile phones, and websites, because those are the tools most people have access to and, critically, are comfortable using in their daily lives. Revolution doesn't happen when society adopts new technologies - it happens when society adopts new behaviors." (fq. 160, theksim i autorit)

[Tė gjitha citatet shkėputur nga: Clay Shirky (2008), Here Comes Everybody. The Power of Organizing Without Organizations, Penguin]

Nė intervistėn e mėposhtme prej 11 minutash nga "Reporterė elektrikė" autori bėn njė pėrmbledhje tė disa prej thėnieve thelbėsore tė "Here Comes Everybody" (subtitruar nė gjermanisht):





 



Se ē'pamje do tė  kishte ky revolucion, kjo ėshtė njė ēėshtje qė e trajtojmė nė kapitullin Ekonomia 2.0. Faqja "Urtėsia e masės" " i kushtohet njė aspekti veēanėrisht tė rėndėsishėm tė formave tė reja tė bashkėpunimit. Atje prezantohen koncepte tė afėrta si Crowdsourcing, tė cilat do tė ishin tė pėrshtatshme si plotės tė analizės sė Clay Shirky. Tė gjitha rekomandimet tona pėr literaturė tė mėtejshme rreth Web 2.0 do t'i gjeni kėtu...

Atyre, qė dėshirojnė tė merren mė intensivisht me efektet e rrejeteve sociale nė shoqėri, u rekomandojmė librin e  Matthew Fraser dhe Soumitra Dutta "Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom". Autorėve u shėrben si bosht raporti i tendosur mes rrejteve (tė reja) horizontale dhe institucioneve (tradicionale) vertikale. Nė mėnyrė tė ngjashme me Clay Shirky, edhe ata janė tė sigurt se Web 2.0 do ta shkundė shoqėrinė:

"Online social networking is revolutionizing how we see ourselves, how we interact with others, how we work and how we participate in the wider society around us. (...) Specifically, this book examines the impact of social networking sites at three different levels: first, our informal personal interactions; second, our formal relationships inside organizations; and third, our behaviour as consumers and citizens." (fq. IX, X)

Libri ndahet nė tre pjesė tė mėdha: Identity - Status – Power. Teza bazė e "Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom" ėshtė :

"We argue that Web 2.0 social media are producing three profound social e-ruptions: identities are becoming disaggregated, status is becoming democratized and power is becoming diffuse. (...) The power of social media, despite organizational resistence, is turning old models on their heads. In the Web 2.0 world, fans become celebrities, student become teachers, customers become producers, employees become bosses, citizens become politicians, Davids become Goliaths." (fq. 20, 24)

[Tė dy citatet shkėputur nga: Matthew Fraser / Soumitra Dutta (2009), Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom. How Online Social Networking Will Transform Your Life, Work and World, Chichester]


[Autorėt: Dr. Ragnar Müller / Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schumann]

 

 

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